1. what's the main idea of the first / second / ... paragraph?
2. paragraph 1 / 2 / ... focuses on / is mainly about _____.
3. what is stressed / does the author stress in paragraph 1 / 2 / ...?
4. what is the key message of the first / second / ... paragraph?
5. what does the first / second / ... paragraph mainly discuss? / what is the first / second / ... paragraph mainly about?
1. 寻找主题句。有的文章中段落的主题句在段首或段尾。这类文章一般段内层次较为 分明，多采用“总——分”或“分——总”结构。但有时主题句会出现在段落的中间，这时段落结构一般是：细节——主题——细节。要把握住段落的逻辑结构，就要特别关注段落内起过渡作用的词汇，如however, but, and, also, for example, in conclusion, on the contrary等。
1. what is the text mainly about?
2. what's the main idea of the text?
3. what does the author mainly discuss in the text?
4. the text mainly deals with _____.
5. the passage is mainly about _____.
6. the author writes the text mainly to _____.
terrafugia inc. said monday that its new flying car has completed its first flight, bringing the company closer to its goal of selling the flying car within the next year. the vehicle — named the transition — has two seats, four wheels and wings that fold up so it can be driven like a car. the transition, which flew at 1,400 feet for eight minutes last month, can reach around 70 miles per hour on the road and 115 in the air. it flies using a 23-gallon tank of gas and burns 5 gallons per hour in the air. on the ground, it gets 35 miles per gallon.
around 100 people have already put down a $10,000 deposit to get a transition when they go on sale, and those numbers will likely rise after terrafugia introduces the transition to the public later this week at the new york auto show. but don't expect it to show up in too many driveways. it’s expected to cost $279,000. and it won't help if you're stuck in traffic. the car needs a runway.
inventors have been trying to make flying cars since the 1930s, according to robert mann, an airline industry expert. but mann thinks terrafugia has come closer than anyone to making the flying car a reality. the government has already permitted the company to use special materials to make it easier for the vehicle to fly. the transition is now going through crash tests to make sure it meets federal safety standards.
mann said terrafugia was helped by the federal aviation administration's decision five years ago to create a separate set of standards for light sport aircraft, which are lower than those for pilots of larger planes. terrafugia says an owner would need to pass a test and complete 20 hours of flying time to be able to fly the transition, a requirement pilots would find relatively easy to meet.
1. what is the first paragraph mainly about?
a. the basic data of the transition.
b. the advantages of flying cars.
c. the potential market for flying cars.
d. the designers of the transition.
after years of heated debate, gray wolves were reintroduced to yellowstone national park. fourteen wolves were caught in canada and transported to the park. by last year, the yellowstone wolf population had grown to more than 170 wolves.
gray wolves once were seen here and there in the yellowstone area and much of the continental united states, but they were gradually displaced by human development. by the 1920s, wolves had practically disappeared from the yellowstone area. they went farther north into the deep forests of canada, where there were fewer humans around.
the disappearance of the wolves had many unexpected results. deer and elk populations — major food sources (来源) for the wolf — grew rapidly. these animals consumed large amounts of vegetation (植被), which reduced plant diversity in the park. in the absence of wolves, coyote populations also grew quickly. the coyotes killed a large percentage of the park's red foxes, and completely drove away the park's beavers.
as early as 1966, biologists asked the government to consider reintroducing wolves to yellowstone park. they hoped that wolves would be able to control the elk and coyote problems. many farmers opposed the plan because they feared that wolves would kill their farm animals or pets.
the government spent nearly 30 years coming up with a plan to reintroduce the wolves. the u.s. fish and wildlife service carefully monitors and manages the wolf packs in yellowstone. today, the debate continues over how well the gray wolf is fitting in at yellowstone. elk, deer, and coyote populations are down, while beavers and red foxes have made a comeback. the yellowstone wolf project has been a valuable experiment to help biologists decide whether to reintroduce wolves to other parts of the country as well.
2. what is the text mainly about?
a. wildlife research in the united states.
b. plant diversity in the yellowstone area.
c. the conflict between farmers and gray wolves.
d. the reintroduction of wolves to yellowstone park.